In many spinning or knitting projects people have asked me how much time I have spent spinning, how much raw fleece it takes to spin a certain amount of yarn, how much a skein would cost etc. I have often wondered this myself. In this post I will take you through all the calculations of my recently finished fleece-to-garment project.

This is the fourth post in a blog series. The first post was about how to find the superpowers of a fleece and in the second post I talked about consistency. The third post was about design from fleece to garment. Through the blog series I use the wool from one sheep as a case study.

## Wool preparation

I started with two fleeces from the same sheep, one spring shearing and one autumn shearing. I had given parts of both to a friend, so none of them were complete fleeces. But an estimation is that I had around **1,2 kg of raw fiber** before I started the project.

To make this yarn happen I went through the following preparations steps:

- I blended the two fleeces together in a big basket
- To tease the wool I used combs and added the sari silk at this stage
- I carded the teased fluff into rolags with my hand cards. Every rolag was carded 6×3 strokes

## Spinning

- I spun the yarn with English longdraw. For each draw I treadled 4 + 10 treadles. Darn it, I didn’t count how many long draws I did for each rolag. But there was a lot of treadling!
- Every single took 16 rolags. The yarn was 3-plied, which equals 16×3=
**48 rolags for every skein** - When the last singles had been plied I had
**12 skeins**of roughly 60 g each. - The total weight of the skeins was
**700 g**. Total length: 1270 m. 700 g of yarn from 1200 g of wool makes a**yield of around 58%**of the weight of the fleeces. My average yield is around 55 %. - 12 3-plied skeins with 48 rolags in each skein makes
**576 rolags**, carded with a total of 10368 strokes. Roughly.

## Knitting

It took **8 skeins to knit** the sweater – **830 m and 440 g**. Still, it is light as a cloud and feels like a second skin. Or my very own fleece.

## Time investment

For time calculations I tried to make an estimation of each part of the process from fluff to stuff. For example, I knit for 20 minutes and weighed how much I had knit during that time and multiplied it by 3 to get the knitted weight per hour.

### Per skein

- Teasing/combing 20 g of wool: 20 minutes x 3 =
**1 hour** - Carding 20 g of fiber: 20 minutes x 3 =
**1 hour** - Spinning 20 g of fiber: 40 minutes x 3 =
**2 hours** - Plying 3×20 g of singles:
**30 minutes** - Plus sorting and washing for a total of around 4 hours

Total time for 12 skeins: **60 hours** (40 for the 8 skeins for the sweater), **5 hours per skein**

Oh, and the embroidery yarn. Let’s add another 4 hours for that.

### Knitting time

**Knitting per hour: 21,6 g**. Total weight of the sweater was 440 g, so an estimated total time for **knitting is roughly 20 hours**. Plus embroidery 2 hours. Ball winding by hand, 2 hours. Add to that designing, swatching, frogging, pattern calculations, blocking etc, an extra 10 h. That’s roughly **80 hours for one sweater**.

## Cost

“I know you love knitting, how much for a sweater? I can pay for the material cost!” How many of you have heard that before? My usual answer is, “Tell me a decent hourly rate and I’ll tell you how many hours it took to knit it.” You know where I’m heading, don’t you?

### Pia’s calculations

A few years ago Pia Kammeborn, Queen of Kammebornia, calculated the cost of a pair of mittens. The post is written in Swedish but the gist of it is: It takes her around 20 hours to knit a pair of half mitts. Textile crafts (or women’s craft) have never really been paid fairly, so Pia’s calculations are based on an average hourly rate for typical male crafts. With an hourly rate of 600 Swedish kronor/ 60 €/ $67, which is what a craftsman in a typical male craft like plumbing or carpentry would earn, Pia’s mittens would cost around 12000 Swedish kronor/ 1200€/ $1320.

“I know you love renovating kitchens, will you do mine? I can pay for the material cost!”. Nobody ever said that. Does that mean men’s work is worth more than women’s? Well, that’s just wrong.

### My calculations

Back to my sweater. We landed in 80 hours totally from fleece to garment. With the same calculations as in Pia’s example that would land in roughly **48000 Swedish kronor/ 4800 €/ $5280**. Or, if you are short on cash, a skein for 3000 Swedish kronor/ 300 €/ $332.

### Material cost?

Two of the fleeces were championship winners and I bought them at the auction following the competition. I paid around 800 Swedish kronor/80 €/ $88 for all three fleeces, so an estimation for the cost of the material for the sweater is around 500 Swedish kronor/50 €/ $55. That’s less than the rate per hour in the calculations in Pia’s example above.

**Less than 300 Swedish kronor/30 €/ $33 for one fleece is way too cheap**, considering the all the work invested by the sheep owner. But that is another story and for a shepherdess to tell.

## The crocodile in the river

So basically I’m walking around at work with a sweater worth 48000 kronor! But I can’t be the first person to having done that. Or, well, 48500 to be more exact if you include the material cost, but that’s just a fart in the universe in this example.

I’m just waiting for someone to ask me what I will charge for a sweater. I’ll take the bait without hesitation,** like a crocodile in the river, unannounced – BAM! – 48000 kronor.**

### A baby crocodile

I can say that I would charge 48000 Swedish kronor for a sweater. I know nobody would buy it, though and I won’t sell it. My husband tried to convince me to sell a pair of nalbinding mittens on e-bay for 20000 Swedish kronor just to make a point. But I would never knit or spin for money. These things are my babies.

I know many people need to sell their handspuns and hand knits. And I know the discussion about pricing handspuns – and fleeces – pops up every now and then in the spinning forums. Even if nobody will buy handmade textiles with the calculations above **it is an important discussion**.

As a hand spinner and/or hand knitter you can always charge at least a little more than you think. **Like a baby crocodile**. Chances are, the more people pay, the more they will appreciate the time, skill and love invested in handmade textiles.

This was the last post in this blog series. As always, I have learned a lot from writing the posts and reflecting over what I am doing and why. I hope you learned something too.

Happy spinning!

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Love this i worked it out at $7310 Australian dollars so no one had better ask me to knit them a handspun top then if you dyed the wool it would be more expensive i only give shawls to people that i really feel will appreciate them and for vey special occasions

Extremely interesting & agree its mainly fellow fibre artists who know the amount of time it takes

Whoops Sorry got a letter wrong in 1st posting

I love this sweater! And the skirt you are wearing with it. Is it a sewn by you or a purchased item?

Thank you! The skirt is a wool skirt from Ivanhoe of Sweden, they make wonderful wool clothes. https://www.ivanhoe.se/en-GB